California Lawmakers Pass Landmark Kids Online Safety Bill

The new rules, which would require many online services to increment protections for children, could change how popular social media and game platforms treat minors.


Jason Henry for The New York Times

Social media and game platforms oftentimes utilize recommendation algorithms, find-a-friend tools, smartphone notices and other enticements to keep people glued online. Just the aforementioned techniques may pose risks to scores of children who have flocked to online services that were non specifically designed for them.

At present California lawmakers have passed the first statute in the nation requiring apps and sites to install guardrails for users nether xviii. The new rules would compel many online services to curb the risks that certain popular features — similar assuasive strangers to message one some other — may pose to child users.

The neb, the California Historic period-Appropriate Design Code Human action, could herald a shift in the fashion lawmakers regulate the tech industry. Rather than wade into heated political battles over online content, the legislation takes a practical, production-safety approach. Information technology aims to concord online services to the aforementioned kinds of basic safety standards as the automobile industry — essentially requiring apps and sites to install the digital equivalent of seatbelts and airbags for younger users.

“The digital ecosystem is not safe by default for children,” said Buffy Wicks, a Democrat in the State Assembly who co-sponsored the bill with a Republican colleague, Jordan Cunningham. “Nosotros remember the Kids’ Lawmaking, as we call it, would make tech safer for children by substantially requiring these companies to better protect them.”

The State Senate passed the bill on Mon evening by a vote of 33 to 0. The State Assembly had already approved a version of the nib. It at present requires approval by Gov. Gavin Newsom, who has non taken a public stance on the measure out.

The new rules tap into a national debate over the potentially deleterious outcome that social media platforms may have on the mental health and body images of some young people.

Instagram in item has come under heightened scrutiny. Terminal autumn, members of Congress examined how the social network’southward automated recommendation engine had served graphic images of cocky-harm to teenage girls besides as content promoting eating disorders to younger users. Before long afterward, President Biden called for greater child safety on social media.

Some companies have faced criticism for exploiting children’s data. In 2019, Google and the operators of, the popular video-sharing app now known as TikTok, each agreed to pay multimillion-dollar federal fines to settle charges that they had illegally nerveless personal data from children without parental permission.

Federal regulators said Google had profited by using children’s information to target them with ads on YouTube. Separately, regulators complained that had made children’s profile photos and other sensitive details public past default, saying the exercise could have enabled adult strangers to contact younger users.

Proponents of the California bill say the new rules should reduce such risks while promoting children’s autonomy and well-beingness online.

Critics in the industry say the legislation is overly wide and could subject field many more online services than necessary to burdensome rules.

The scope of the California legislation far exceeds federal safeguards for youngsters online. A federal law, the Children’s Online Privacy Protection Human action of 1998, narrowly protects the privacy of users nether the age of xiii — and then merely when they utilize online services aimed at youngsters, such as children’southward video apps.

California is already a pioneer in children’due south online rubber and information privacy, enacting protections over the last decade that dozens of other states have replicated. Now information technology has become the outset country to laissez passer a pecker requiring general-audience sites and apps “likely to be accessed” past children to install basic protections for users under the age of xviii.

“Children should exist afforded protections not only by online products and services specifically directed at them,” the statute reads, “simply by all online products and services they are likely to access.”

The California neb would require online services for general audiences to proactively pattern their products and features to protect child users. In practice, that means apps and sites must analyze and mitigate the risks that their services may pose to minors — like exposing them to explicit content or using manipulative techniques to prod them to spend hours on end online.

The legislation likewise requires online services to turn on the highest privacy settings by default for minors. And it prohibits online platforms from collecting children’due south precise locations without “providing an obvious sign to the child” while their whereabouts are being tracked.

The new rules, which would take effect in 2024, could prompt some online services to introduce nationwide changes, rather than care for minors in California differently.



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The California statute takes many of its cues from United kingdom of great britain and northern ireland, where regulators put comprehensive online protections for minors into upshot in 2021. British officials have said their effort, called the Children’s Code, was intended to set up baseline safety standards, like preventing adult strangers from contacting children or disabling social media features that could prove a child’s exact location on a map to other users.

Designers of the British lawmaking said they also wanted to limit manipulative practices — similar barraging children with notifications at all hours or automatically playing videos one after the other — that could get young users hooked on social media and game platforms.

“We all as a club have to start actually setting a floor,” said Beeban Kidron, a member of the House of Lords who spearheaded the British attempt and is the founder of the 5Rights Foundation, a digital rights’ group for children. “Let’s end introducing adults to children or putting children on a map so y’all can encounter where they are. Don’t notify kids all through the nighttime. Turn off autoplay.”

With the new British rules looming concluding year, YouTube, Instagram and other popular services bolstered their safeguards for younger users worldwide. Some said they had begun developing the production changes well before the British code took result.

Final summertime, YouTube said it would brand uploads private past default for users ages 13 to 17 worldwide, and so only followers approved by teenagers may view their videos. It also turned off autoplay by default for minors.

TikTok said it had fabricated all existing accounts registered to users 13 to 15 private by default, while Instagram has fabricated new accounts private by default for users under 16. Snapchat, where all accounts are prepare to private by default, recently took steps to hinder developed strangers from interacting with younger users, as have Instagram and TikTok.

Google has turned on SafeSearch, a feature that can hibernate explicit search results, by default for users nether eighteen worldwide. Information technology has also disabled location history for minors globally.

The California code could apply to many other online services that children are likely to utilise — game platforms, connected toys, vocalism-activated digital assistants and virtual reality apps. The beak could as well bear on popular education services similar Google Classroom, a school consignment portal used by millions of children, whose privacy policy says it collects information nigh users’ locations.

Opponents of the children’s lawmaking said the wide mandate could pose problems for businesses. Among the most visible critics: the California Bedchamber of Commerce and TechNet, a tech industry clan whose members include Amazon, Apple, Cisco, Google, Oracle, Pinterest, Snap and Meta, the social media giant formerly known every bit Facebook.

Industry groups pressed California lawmakers to narrow the neb’south definition of a “child” to a person under 16 — rather than a small-scale nether 18. They also argued that the scope of the bill was too broad and its provisions too vague to bear out.

“The requirement that companies consider the ‘best interests’ of children is incredibly difficult to interpret,” TechNet and the Chamber of Commerce wrote in a letter to legislators in April. In a similar letter of the alphabet in June, industry groups said the bill’s broad focus on online services “likely to be accessed” by children would subject “far more websites and platforms than necessary” to the bill’southward requirements.



Eleonora Agostini for The New York Times

Civil liberties experts raised concerns most another outcome: consumer privacy. In particular, they warned that the requirement for general-audition sites to provide greater protections for children could lead to unintended consequences for adults.

“Such a organisation would likely pb platforms to set up upwardly elaborate age-verification systems for everyone, significant that all users would accept to submit personal data and submit to more corporate surveillance,” the Electronic Borderland Foundation, a digital rights group, wrote to legislators in April.

The News/Media Alliance, a trade group representing two,000 publishers including The New York Times, has also lobbied for changes, saying the linguistic communication of the bill could require newspapers and magazines to undertake costly changes like instituting age verification for online readers or creating different versions of manufactures for minors.

Legislators have made some changes to accommodate industry concerns. For 1 matter, they added a provision giving companies a grace catamenia to prepare violations after receiving notice from regulators.

But the well-nigh disruptive aspect of the wide children’s online prophylactic effort may lie in its “first, do no harm” philosophy. That proactive stance could usher in a new approach for regulating tech companies in the United States — fifty-fifty as it challenges the build-it-first-and-beg-forgiveness-afterward starting time-up ethos of Silicon Valley.

Indeed, the nib explicitly instructs companies to “prioritize
the privacy, rubber and well-being of children” over commercial interests.

“We blueprint playgrounds to exist reasonably rubber and a lot of fun,” said Baroness Kidron, the House of Lords fellow member. “We design medicine to be reasonably safe and appropriate to your size. And we need to design the digital world to be reasonably safe and appropriate to your age any time.”


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